Posted: July 23rd, 2021

BNURS20 Nursing Assignment on My Clinical Rotation

There was a specific case examine which I got here throughout once I was on my medical rotation. The case examine concerned a person who was known as Mr. Curtis. He was 74 years outdated and the person had truly been admitted attributable to a routine cholecystectomy. He had a medical historical past of hypertension in addition to the cardiac myocardial infarctions over a interval of the final one yr.

Whereas performing my routine commentary by an electrocardiogram, I spotted that the affected person had an irregular coronary heart fee (HR).The outcomes of the cardiogram have been as proven within the image beneath:

Based mostly on the above electrocardiogram, it is extremely clear that the affected person has what is called an irregular coronary heart fee. An everyday or quite a standard cardiac rhythm is characterised by a P wave, a QRS and at last the T wave.



QT Interval

Zero.36-Zero.44 Seconds.

P wave

Amplitude:2-Three mm excessive

Deflection:+ in I,II,AVF,V2-V6

Period:Zero.06-Zero.12 seconds

T wave

Amplitude: Zero.5 mm in limb hills.


Period:Zero.1-Zero.25 seconds

ST section

Zero.08-Zero.12 seconds.

QRS complicated

Amplitude:5-Zero mm Excessive

Deflection: + in I, II, III, AVL, AVF, and V4-V6.

Period:Zero.06-Zero.1 seconds

PR Interval

Zero.012-Zero.2 seconds

The above desk and picture illustrate a standard electrocardiogram .If we truly evaluate the outcomes from the affected person and the usual, we notice that there are loads of discrepancies each within the P wave, the QRS complicated, The QT interval, the ST section and at last the T wave.

Based mostly on the above outcomes, the affected person may be affected by cardiac arrhythmia. It is a situation which is also called irregular heartbeat and is solely a bunch of various circumstances of the guts with irregular heartbeats. The heartbeats can both be too gradual or too quick .The outcomes from Mr. Curtis clearly reveals that his heartbeat may be very quick and that's typical of cardiac arrhythmia. A quick heartbeat is called tachycardia .Despite the fact that majority of arrhythmias usually are not very severe, they will finally result in stroke.

The center has an electrical system which when falters in any method, leads to what's often called cardia arrhythmia. An electrical stimulus is often generated by the sinoatrial node which is a mass or tissue that's present in the best atrium of the human coronary heart (Kunisek, 2012). The sinus node generates an electrical stimulus which travels by conduction pathways downwards. Subsequently, the potential causes for such an arrhythmias includes something that alters the electrical system of the guts. Such causes embody stress, sure drugs and substances like nicotine and caffeine.

Despite the fact that therapy of cardiac arrhythmias will not be crucial, it needs to be carried at any time when the situation is inflicting important or severe indicators and signs. That's, it needs to be handled at any time when it's posing a well being threat to the affected person. As beforehand mentioned, cardiac arrhythmias may be both gradual heartbeats or quick heartbeats. The therapy possibility for each additionally differ however not that a lot.

Within the therapy of gradual heartbeats, docs often use what is called a pacemaker since no examine has established any type of drugs that may trigger the hear enhance its beats. A pacemaker is a tool that's often or quite implanted within the physique close to the collarbone. This pacemaker has wires with electrodes which are unfold within the blood vessels to the guts and their perform is to sense and ship alerts to the guts to extend heartbeats at any time when it slows down.

Medical doctors often prescribe a wide range of medicine to counter cardiac arrhythmias. The medicine which are used to deal with cardiac arrhythmias are often called Antiarrhythmic. The commonest Antiarrhythmic are Amiodarone which can be known as Cordarone. Others embody Flecainide, Procainamide and at last the sotalol. In addition to these medicine, there are two different lessons of medication and so they embody Beta-blockers and the calcium channel blockers. Examples of beta blockers embody metoprolol or Toprol XL. These medicine work by decreasing the work fee of the guts. Calcium channel blockers then again embody verapamil and calan that are used to decrease the guts fee.

Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers each have completely different mechanisms of motion. Beta blockers work by blocking the actions of a hormone often called epinephrine or adrenaline. Since calcium often narrows blood vessels, the calcium channel blockers work by blocking the motion of calcium in order that the blood vessels can calm down and widen thus decreasing the guts beats or coronary heart fee.

Antiarrhythmic medicine have a number of uncomfortable side effects and so they embody swelling of legs, blurry imaginative and prescient, dizziness, mild headedness and fainting additionally occurs typically. One may also lose urge for food, expertise a metallic style in mouth and being delicate to mild as effectively. Lastly, one can expertise diarrhea and constipation. 

Electrolyte administration

Disturbances in equilibrium in electrolytes results in cardiac arrhythmias. The most important electrolytes that play a job in cardiac arrhythmia are potassium. The extent of potassium in blood plasma ought to at all times be maintained at Three.5 and 5.2 mmol /L. At any time when the extent of potassium scale back or enhance, the general results are on the myocardium or the guts muscle groups which both results in quick or gradual heartbeats .In administration of the cardiac arrhythmias, it's due to this fact crucial to make sure that the resting membrane potential which is outlined by the ratio of ICF to that of ECF, is maintained on the required or the really helpful ranges.

Monitoring sufferers.

In addition to remedy and electrolyte administration, monitoring is one other methodology during which cardiac arrhythmias might be effectively assessed and handled. There are numerous monitoring procedures that can be utilized. Electrocardiogram, Holter Monitor and at last occasion monitor are a few of the monitoring procedures which are generally used.

An occasion monitor is a tool the affected person wears at any time when she or he is on her day by day actions. This gadget is used to watch these cardiac arrhythmias that aren't frequent. It has electrodes which are positioned on the affected person’s chest then the wires from the electrodes are then connected to the field which is then worn on a belt. At any time when there are any signs, a sure button is pressed and prompts recording. The monitor would then file the readings One minute earlier than the button was pressed and 40 seconds after the prevalence of the arrhythmia.

A Holter Monitor is one other gadget that can be utilized to watch sufferers. It additionally has electrodes which are positioned on the chest. The gadget file electrical alerts from the guts after which saved by the identical gadget. The affected person is then suggested on recording his or her actions in addition to signs like dizziness and the speedy heartbeats.

An Electrocardiogram can be used to watch the electrical exercise of the guts. It has electrodes which are positioned on the chest, legs and arms then linked to the machine which finally produce a graph of the rhythm of the guts.

Fundamental interpretation of the ABG outcomes

The next have been the outcomes from Mr. Curtis.



Regular vary






80-100 mmHg



35-45 mmHg



22-28 mmol/L




From the outcomes, it's clear that the PH of the blood is beneath the conventional ranges.PaO2 can be beneath the conventional values whereas PaCO2 is increased the conventional values.SaO2 can be beneath the conventional values however the HCOThree is regular .The essential purpose as to why there may be an imbalance within the blood gases is because of the truth that the alveoli are congested thus there isn't a stability within the uptake of oxygen and the expulsion of carbon dioxide. The blood stress enhance as the guts tends to work extra. 

The pathophysiology of Acute Pulmonary edema

The pathophysiology of acute pulmonary edema might be briefly summarized within the move chart beneath

In accordance with McCance, abnormalities in hydrostatic stress, capillary oncotic pressures, capillary permeability and at last the lymphatic drainage finally results in Acute Pulmonary edema. The situation would possibly as effectively be attributable to both systolic or diastolic coronary heart failure. Systolic coronary heart failure refers to a situation whereby the left ventricles start to weaken thus making them unable to maintain an ample cardiac output. Diastolic coronary heart failure then again refers to a situation during which the left ventricles fail to calm down or dilate totally between contractions and this leads to what's identified ventricular filling which additionally finally consequence into decreased output. There are a number of components or quite circumstances that may result in coronary heart failure. The commonest embody hypertension, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery illnesses and at last the valve dysfunction.

Compensatory mechanisms are at all times stimulated at any time when there may be lowered cardiac output that come up from coronary heart failure. The compensatory mechanisms embody vasoconstriction and fluid retention. Insufficient oxygen in tissues additionally stimulate the sympathetic nervous system that results in vasoconstriction by the discharge of noradrenaline. Diminished move of blood within the kidneys additionally stimulates what is called the renin angiotensin system that results in systemic vasoconstriction. In abstract, all these components improves on the overall cardiac output.

Vasoconstriction at all times results in elevated afterload which often makes the cardiac perform very weak .Elevated stress in addition to quantity within the pulmonary circulation results in motion of the intravascular fluid within the alveolar cells and the interstitial areas. It's the congestion of the fluids within the lungs that makes them unable to perform correctly by way of gaseous alternate and this finally results in respiratory misery or Acute Pulmonary edema.

Medical and Nursing Interventions for a affected person with Acute Pulmonary Edema.

For a affected person affected by Acute Pulmonary edema, the core goal for therapy is to maximise the functioning of the guts by decreasing cardiac work in addition to the intravascular quantity .There are a number of type of therapy which are utilized. The therapies are supposed to scale back intrapulmonary pressures and permitting the lymphatic system to expel fluids throughout the alveolar areas.

Medicine like furosemide, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, morphine and oxygen are essentially the most generally used to deal with flash pulmonary edema. Furosemide often acts as a vasodilator and a diuretic. Nitroglycerin then again works as a vasodilator with the purpose of decreasing preload and when taken in massive doses, results in decreased afterload thus enhancing on the overall cardiac output.

Nitroprusside is often used as venous and arterial dilator which scale back each the preload and the after load therefore decreasing blood stress. Morphine then again scale back pulmonary edema and blood stress by venous dilation (Obrowski, 2016). Nonetheless, morphine can result in respiratory despair therefore needs to be used with loads of care and warning.

The nursing interventions for sufferers with acute pulmonary Edema embody the titration with oxygen the nasal cannula in order to maintain the oxygen saturation throughout the 92-100% per MD order. The affected person will even be given the Lasix 60mg IV BID per MD order and also will be weighed every day .The affected person can be alleged to be positioned on the 1500 ml fluid restricted food regimen per MD order and each the consumption and output can be monitored then calculated for every shift.

Elements of HDU affected person evaluation.

There are a number of parts of the HDU evaluation and so they embody airway, respiratory, circulation, incapacity, specialing. All of the above parts have set requirements which the nurses should evaluate towards the affected person in order that they will inform or know the right way to successfully deal with the affected person.

Respiratory signs of APO and why they happen

There are completely different indicators and signs for acute respiratory edema. The commonest nonetheless embody speedy and irregular heartbeats, Blue tinged lips, and a chilly and clammy pores and skin, there may be additionally wheezing or gasping for breath. Some sufferers will even have a sense of suffocation or drowning which worsen when the affected person lies down. There's additionally coughs which produce sputum that's frothy and will have spots of blood as effectively. Nervousness, restlessness and a way of apprehension are additionally frequent. Dyspnea can be frequent and it will get worse at any time when the affected person lies down.


Kunisek, J. (2012). Affect of Patern and Diploma of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy on Cardiac Arrhythmias. Cardiac Arrhythmias - New Issues. doi:10.5772/38133

Obrowski, M. (2016). Lethal Excessive Altitude Pulmonary Problems: Acute Mountain Illness (AMS); Excessive Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) and Excessive Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE): A Scientific Assessment. Worldwide Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Sciences, 1(1). doi:10.19080/ijoprs.2016.01.555553

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Order your paper today and save 15% with the discount code: SKOOL