Chiang Rai Thailand Health And Social Care Essay
This is a quantitative research review on a survey conducted in 2008 in the northern state of Chiang Rai, Thailand. The survey investigates the causal relationships between age, antiretroviral intervention, societal support, symptom experience, self-care schemes, and health-related quality of life ( HRQOL ) in people populating with HIV/AIDS ( PLWHA ) in the northern part of the said state. Four hundred 22 topics were selected to take part in the research and from them informations were collected with the usage of four different questionnaires. The consequences revealed that symptom experience had a important negative direct consequence on the HRQOL as opposed to age, societal support, antiretroviral intervention and self-care schemes which had important positive consequence on the HRQOL. Furthermore, it was seen that societal support and antiretroviral intervention had an indirect consequence on the HRQOL through self-care schemes. With these findings, it was recommended that publicity of societal support and attachment to antiretroviral intervention must be achieved to heighten the quality of life of people populating with HIV/ AIDS.
The rubric is dryly stated which included a minimum figure of words but still adequately describes the contents of the paper ( Day & A ; Gastal, 2006 ) . It is concise yet does non compromise its relevancy and does non sound uninteresting. It is briefly put together but still is moderately extended to explicate the research without overpowering readers with excessively much information. Furthermore, the rubric is formulated in a strong and simple mode which is really of import in guaranting readers will non be distracted or confused. The rubric presents the topic of the research which is the health-related quality of life in people populating with HIV/ AIDS in the northern part of Thailand.
The research workers of this survey are Thitiarpa Tangkawanich, Jintana Yunibhand, Sureeporn Thanasilp, and Kathy Magilvy. Thitiarpa Tangkawanich, RN, Msc, Jintana Yunibhand, RN, Msc, PhD, and Sureeporn Thanasilp, RN, Msc, DNS are members of the Faculty of Nursing in Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand while Kathy Magilvy, RN, PhD, FAAN is a professor of the College of Nursing of the University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA. With all these academic certificates and makings, the research workers can be considered believable personalities in their several Fieldss of fortes. The research was made by well-thought-of professors and registered nurses. All of them have maestro ‘s grade while Tangkawanich is the lone one without a doctorial grade.
The article uses an declarative or descriptive abstract to supply a brief sum-up of the chief points of the research ( Day & A ; Gastal, 2006 ) . Since the research surveies a societal occurrence in a quantitative attack, the research workers used this sort of abstract as it describes what transpired during the full research procedure. The abstract references the condensed signifier of the research purpose, which is to happen out the causal relationships between age, antiretroviral intervention, societal support, symptom experience, self-care schemes and health-related quality of life. The methodological analysis used in carry oning the research is mentioned although some information was excluded as they were discussed in item in the succeeding parts of the research. Four different questionnaires were used to roll up informations from the 422 respondents chosen for the survey. Using the Likert evaluation graduated table, the informations were analyzed and were so subjected to statistical intervention with SPSS and LISREL. The abstract besides reports the major findings ( Day & A ; Gastal, 2006 ) which show that symptom experience has a important negative consequence on the HRQOL while the other staying variables had a important positive consequence. Additionally, societal support and antiretroviral intervention were besides found to hold an indirect consequence on HRQOL via self-care schemes. Last, the abstract of the survey suggests a recommendation for the health-care squad, together with the household and community, to advance societal support and guarantee antiretroviral intervention to heighten the quality of life in people populating with HIV/ AIDS sing the research findings. It besides illustrates the survey ‘s significance to clinical pattern.
The research job is clearly presented in the debut of the article as it explains the principle behind the behavior of this survey ( Walsh & A ; Wigens, 2007 ) . The purpose in this survey is to look into the causal relationships between age, antiretroviral intervention, societal support, symptom experience, self-care schemes and the HRQOL in people populating with HIV/AIDS in northern Thailand. It examines whether or non relationships between these factors exist, what sort of relationships exists if there are any and how does it implicate the people with the infection and the likely intercessions to be taken by wellness attention squad every bit good. The debut was besides able to give a state of affairs about how people with HIV/AIDS in the involved survey puting live their lives. It gave a brief treatment about HIV/AIDS which significantly provides a good jump-start in explicating the entireness of the research. The debut states the scarceness in research stuff that focal point on the relationships among the variables identified, HRQOL and PLWHA, set uping the demand for the survey to be conducted. Although the debut was able to discourse the major points and variables in the survey, it did non include the restrictions. Additionally, the debut besides did non explicate the chief subject from a bigger international range to a narrow and more specific degree ( Day & A ; Gastal, 2006 ) . In amount, the debut was able to set up a clear logic, an analysis of old plants, background information and the chief intent of the research ( Walsh & A ; Wigens, 2003 ) .
The broad literature reappraisal used in the research was able to give a good background about the major points in the survey. However, many other stuffs still could hold been used to further beef up the survey ‘s literature reappraisal. It is notable that the survey is supported by up to day of the month information which makes it more timely and relevant. The literature reappraisal utilized articles from many other research workers whose research end products have greatly provided helpful informations to the survey. The description of the present life conditions of the respondents ( Sukati et al. , 2005 ) , the self-care schemes that they use ( Panuwatsuk, 1998 ) , the symptoms and their correlativity to HRQOL ( Dodd et al. 2001 ) , the current antiretroviral intervention ( Heckman 2003 ) , all these and others, were taken from researches conducted from twelvemonth 2000 through 2007. The literature is able to show in text the theoretical construction from which the survey was anchored. With the sum of referenced articles presented in the literature, the balanced rating of back uping and opposing stuffs for the proposition is demonstrated. Since merely few researches surveies were made sing the indirect consequence of the many factors identified on the HRQOL in PLWHA, the necessity to develop a theoretical account that could show the direct and indirect effects of the forecasters on the HRQOL in PLWHA has clearly risen as stated in the literature reappraisal. Furthermore, of import mentions were acknowledged consequently to further reenforce the soundness of the survey. Notwithstanding, it may hold given an extended overview on the survey, but still it was non able to show a few important points. Although the literature illustrated a comprehensive background on the survey and the variables involved, it did non overtly cite the cardinal theoretical model.
The survey is a quantitative research which tries to explicate a societal phenomenon. This connotes that no change of the environment was made and the respondents were non subjected to any signifier of controlled scene, therefore, variables involved are limited. Since this is a quantitative research, it must hold a sound hypothesis which will function as its anchor. But it is non stated alternatively, an implied hypothesis was used to see whether or non relationships exist among the forecasters: age, antiretroviral intervention, societal support, self-care schemes and symptom experience on wellness -related quality of life in people populating with HIV/AIDS. This is an illustration of a non-directional hypothesis ( Wood & A ; Haber, 2006 ) , where the hypothesis being tested is reversible but can be tested by geting informations and subjecting them to statistical analysis.
The research workers used words that are largely clear and apprehensible. They did non utilize excessively many slangs in the he-man. Abbreviations like HRQOL, PLWHA and HIV/AIDS are besides clearly defined to avoid confusion. Footings besides have consistent and consistent definitions throughout the survey, particularly those operationally defined for this research ( Walonick, 2005 ) .
The survey uses a cross-sectional quantitative survey with a non-experimental research design in placing the respondents ‘ degree of HRQOL in relation to their age, antiretroviral intervention, societal support, symptom experience, and self-care schemes. It means that an experimental survey utilizing a aggregation of informations on one juncture was made with a specific group of population all at the same clip ( Walsh & A ; Wigens, 2003 ) . It is the appropriate method to be used as it gives a snapshot of what happens in a chosen mark group or a phenomenon at one point in clip ( Babbie, 2010 ) . It is besides fit for this research as it is normally used in societal and medical scientific discipline. However, it besides has its failing or restriction since it merely captures the information at one specific clip as opposed to longitudinal surveies which involve a series of measurings taken over a period of clip ( Babbie, 2010 ) . Bing a non-experimental research, no use of the variables was done and there was no effort made to alter the status, behavior or the environment of the variables as they are measured and analysed as they are. The respondents were merely made to reply questionnaires that will reflect their ain personal experience and at the same clip supply informations for the research worker ‘s perusing.
The topics chosen for the survey are 422 people populating with HIV/AIDS who visited eight chosen outpatient infirmaries in the state of Chiang Rai in the northern portion of Thailand. Of which, 188 are males and 234 are females, with ages runing from 21 to 51 old ages old. The figure of respondents may non be sufficient to wholly stand for the mark population in the research puting but in many fortunes, a smaller sample size may be more important and useable in look intoing a state of affairs in deepness from different positions, while a big sample would be undistinguished particularly in societal researches ( Myers, 2000 ) .
The research workers employed the lottery method without replacing in indiscriminately choosing eight infirmaries out of the 17 infirmaries in the northern state of Chiang Rai, Thailand. A random sampling method was so made to find the 422 topics who will be portion of the survey. They are people populating with HIV/ AIDS who visited the eight chosen outpatient infirmaries. The usage of lottery method in concurrence with simple random trying makes the choice of respondents more effectual and valid as it ignores repeat choices of component and gives more precise calculators ( Kalton, 1983 ) . Clearly, the attack used in sample choice and the sample size are doubtless stated.
The research workers were able to methodically discourse the process undertaken in informations aggregation. They used four questionnaires to garner informations from the participants: societal support questionnaires, symptom experience questionnaire, self-care schemes questionnaire and health-related quality of life questionnaires. Each of these questionnaires has been carefully chosen and drafted for the survey. The three questionnaires for societal support, self-care schemes and health-related quality were all adapted from old research while the questionnaire for symptom experience was drafted establishing on the reappraisal of literature. The cogency and dependability of the questionnaires were greatly anchored on the internal consistences used for each questionnaire. The questionnaires are meticulously reviewed by the research worker to guarantee its ability to mensurate what it intends to mensurate ( Foddy, 1993 ) . However, no reference about pilot testing was made and this may be considered one of the survey ‘s failings.
Creswell ( 2003 ) stated that ethical issues arise most normally in informations aggregation where confidentiality and namelessness are in careful examination. These concerns are recognised and acted upon by the research workers by guaranting respondents were given due protection and their safety is non abridged. The research workers acquired the blessing of the Ethical Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects and/or Use of Animals in Research, Health Science Group of Faculties, Colleges and Institutes, Chulalongkorn University, and the Ethical Review Committee for the Biomedical Group, Chiangraiprachanukroh Hospital, Thailand. With human topics involved in the survey, such blessing was obtained. The intent and methods of the survey were explained to the participants through the informed consent which acknowledges the participants ‘ rights are protected ( Creswell, 2003 ) .
The consequences of the survey were presented clearly in graphical signifier and text. The consequences of the statistical intervention of the informations were explained in four concise yet extremely enlightening paragraphs while the demographics of the topics were presented in a more ocular and apprehensible tabular array ( Kumar, 2005 ) . The internal consistences of the informations, utilizing the Cronbach ‘s alpha were besides presented accurately, for societal support 0.8, for symptom experience which was clustered into six symptoms, weariness 0.88, nausea 0.92, diarrhea 0.93, depression 0.92, neuropathy 0.93 and anxiousness 0.92 ; for self-care schemes 0.77 and eventually for HRQOL 0.85. Given all these figures, readers are assured that the consequences are good calculated and analysed to guarantee that high degree of cogency and dependability is achieved.
Four different and highly-structured questionnaires ( Overseas Learning Faculty 2004 ) were used in roll uping informations. The usage of questionnaires is the appropriate technique in obtaining informations for cross-sectional designed research or societal studies as it acquires first-hand information from the topics without change or use of their responses ( Bryman & A ; Bell, 2003 ) . On the other manus, SPSS and LISREL, statistical computing machine plans that perform higher computations and structural equation, were used for statistical analysis. Statistical interventions done with the said statistical tool are considered extremely right ( Norse School of Management, 2009 ) . The consequences of the information analysis show that path relationships between the variables were investigated to guarantee that important differences are non attributed to fluctuations in other relevant variables. It can besides be noted that the information analysis adequately showed the complete information with the trial value, grade of freedom and chance for each identified variable, thereby giving more constituted consequences.
The treatment of the research findings ties together all the pieces of the survey and gives a image of the survey as a whole. It relates and translates the figures to literature reappraisal therefore doing it more comprehendible and balanced ( Russel, 2002 ) . The research workers were able to travel back to literature and discourse that most of their research findings are consistent and similar with the plants antecedently done by other research workers on HRQOL in PLWHA. It besides tackled the deductions of the topics ‘ socio-economic position, gender, age, societal support, antiretroviral intervention, and symptom experience and self-care schemes to their health-related quality of life. The restriction of the survey was besides acknowledged where the usage of cross-sectional theoretical account was perceived to be the theoretical account ‘s failing since it merely gives a snapshot of the existent discernible fact at one point in clip ( Wood & A ; Haber, 2006 ) . Therefore, it was suggested that future surveies should be conducted to further set up the causal relationships between the variables longitudinally over a longer period of clip to get enduring and more dependable research consequences.
The decision coheres with and is supported by the consequences obtained. The research workers conclude that a causal theoretical account of HRQOL in PLWHA indicate that most factors have direct and indirect effects on the HRQOL. Consequently, age, societal support, antiretroviral intervention, symptom experience, and self-care schemes are considered to be important factors in explicating and foretelling the HRQOL in Thai PLWHA. Furthermore, self-care schemes link societal support and antiretroviral intervention with HRQOL in Thai PLWHA. The research workers besides presented the deductions of the survey which are really instrumental in the survey ‘s concluding recommendations.
With the findings and decisions at manus, the research workers strongly recommend executable propositions to assist people populating with HIV/AIDS achieve a higher quality of life as they hurdle challenges of huge proportions, including HIV-stigma, deficiency of societal support, and mental wellness issues such as depression ( Jiraphongsa et al. , 2009 ) . The research workers gave motive on the publicity of societal support from the household and the community as it was found to be positively correlated with a better quality of life ( Fogel, 1998 ) . Observation to antiretroviral intervention, early symptom sensing and prompt intercession and pattern of self-care schemes must besides be ensured to accomplish a higher quality of life. The research workers besides pointed out the demand to carry on future research on this subject to get the better of the restrictions they met in carry oning this academic work for stronger and more dependable consequences.
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