Cross Cultural Aspects of Business
Greet hefted d. George England The various determinants of culture include: Political and Economic Philosophy Social Truckee / Social organization Religion (Dominant) and Education. A a. Language b. Barriers c. Relationship d. Complexity The application of ideas and practices everywhere without any alternation Is called – -. This approach applies rules and systems objectively. Without consideration for individual circumstances. A a. Universalism b. Particularity c. Individualism d.
Communitarian’s Greet Hefted isolated four dimensions that he claimed summarized different cultures uncertainty avoidance, individualism Vs. collectivism and masculinity Vs. femininity. B a. Religion b. Power distance c. Language d. Education rived five relationship orientations that address the ways in which people deal with each other. These can be considered to be cultural dimensions that are analogous to hefted”s dimensions: B a. Rene and Sheehan b. Fonts Trampers c. Greet hefted d. George England is an organizational characteristic that assigns individuals to D specific, well-defined tasks.
In an internal Section Number Page Number 2. 1 1. 7 2. 2 1. 8 10 3. 3 Page of 16 7 8 9 context, it can be classified into horizontal and vertical . A. Individualism b. Centralization. C. Formalization d. Specialization Is a management system in which important decisions are made at the top. In an international context, the value of this will vary according to the local environment and the goals of the organization. A. Individualism b. Centralization. C. Formalization d. Specialization What influences the cost of doing a business in a country and cost of doing business will affect the competitive advantage at the global market place. . Value systems and norms of that country b. International economy c. Global economy d. Local environment People in emotional cultures often smile a great deal, talk loudly when they are excited and ret each other with a great deal of enthusiasm. For example, would openly express emotions even in a business situation. A. Italians, Mexicans and Chinese b. Mexicans and Chinese only c. Italians and Chinese only d. Japan and the UK 1 . Is one in which emotions are openly and naturally expressed 2. Is one in which emotions are held in check a. Neutral Culture, Effective Culture b.
Emotional Culture, Neutral Culture c. Emotional Culture, Effective Culture d. Neutral Culture, Emotional Culture Developmental psychologists believe that by age most make. A. 16 b. 12 c. 10 d. 18 In addition to national boundaries and geographical obstacles, which is a major factor that affects cultural stability? 4. 9 52 11 4. 4 12 55 Page 2 of 16 14 a. Gender b. Emotions c. Language d. Isolation The knowledge of Concept of Culture is for understanding human behavior throughout the world including one”s own country. A. Unimportant b. Desirable but not a must c. Ignorable d.
Imperative Who provides a Timeless definition of culture as the configuration of learned behavior and results of behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society. Or perhaps more appropriately; “the way we do things around here”. . Edward Taylor b. Ralph Linton c. Robert Weber d. Xvi Impairment Following are suggestions that apply for all types of communication and downward in particular: 1 . Use the most common words with their most common meanings. 2. Speak with clear breaks between the words so that it is easier for the person to follow. A. 1 – true, 2 – false b. – false, 2 – true c. 1 – true, 2 – true d. 1 – false, 2 – false Many American writers are far more blunt and direct. The U. S. Generated letter could well be regarded as by Asian readers, while American readers might regard the letter from the Korean writer as . A. Ague, emotional, accusatory, rude b. Rude, vague, emotional, accusatory c. Normal, vague, emotional, accusatory d. Rude, clear, neutral, soft While explaining Perceptual barrier, a good example is provided by the perception of who reside in the . Most Americans see themselves as extremely outgoing and kind and they believe that others also see them in this way. . Friendly, Foreigners, United States b. Foreigners, United States, friendly c. United States, Foreigners, friendly 1. 1 1. 2 15 c 5. 3. 1 16 5. 4 65 17 Page 3 of 16 18 19 20 d. United States, friendly, Foreigners, Upward Communication is the transfer of information from . A. Subordinate to superior b. Superior to subordinate c. Asia to U. S d. U. S to Asia A culture is one in which individuals have a large public space they readily let other enter and share and a small private space they guard closely and share with only close friends and associates. A. Public b.
Diffuse c. Private d. Specific A is one in which both public and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well. A. Diffuse culture b. Achievement culture c. Specific culture d. Ascription culture Participants in culture are there primarily to perform roles such as confirming, criticizing, developing, finding resources for and/or helping to complete the development of an innovative product or service. A. Guided missile culture b. Incubator c. Family d.
Eiffel Tower Which culture derived its name from high-tech organizations such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which pioneered the use of project groups working on space probes. A. Guided missile b. Family c. Eiffel Tower d. Incubator In which project, formal hierarchical considerations are given low priority ND individual expertise is of greatest importance. A. Guided missile b. Incubator c. Family d. Eiffel Tower is a belief in the superiority of one”s own ethnic group or culture. Because of this companies stress nationalism and often put home 5. 3. 2 75 7. 2. 4 7. 2. 82 92 24 8. 2 87 Page 4 of 16 25 international management positions a. Patriotism b. Ethnocentrism c. Communism d. Socialism Which type of company produces, markets, invests and operates across the world. It is an integrated global enterprise which links global resources with global markets at a profit. A. National company b. International company c. Domestic company d. Trans-national Company The need for is particularly high in trans- national firms. This is reflected in the use of an array of formal and informal integrating mechanisms, including formal matrix structures and informal management networks. . Co-ordination b. Cooperation c. Exploitation d. Globalization The _(or multi-local) strategy is one in which local markets are linked together within a region, allowing more local responsiveness and specialization. A. Centralization b. Rationalization c. Globalization d. Nationalization will emphasis short-term profits, the Japanese are known to be more patient in sacrificing short-term results in order to build for the future with investment, research and development and market share. A. Americans b. China c. India d.
Japanese Matthias is one firm with considerable expertise at being a ” ” firm. A. Global b. Local c. Global d. Domestic Ascription cultures accord status based on gender or social connections. A. Age b. Achievers c. Performers d. Inventors As per Hefted”s research individualism is the tendency of people to look after themselves 8. 3 26 89 6. 2 76 31 3. 2 36 Page 5 of 16 32 33 5 37 and their immediate family only. Is the tendency of people to belong to groups or collectives and to look after each other in exchange for loyalty. A. Individualism b. Collectivism c. Communitarian’s d.
Groupies In Germany, Herr Professor Doctor Schmidt would be referred to this way at the university, local market, and bowling alley and even his wife might address him in public. A. Informally b. Formally c. Differently d. Individually The following features apply to managers of l. Is a decision maker. II. Heads the group. Ill. Is directive. ‘V. Often has conflicting values. A. Japan b. Europe c. U. K d. America The following features apply to managers of l. Is a social facilitator. II. Is the member of a group. Ill. Accepts symbolic responsibility when things go wrong ‘V.