Posted: July 22nd, 2021

HLST234 Nursing : Sexually Transmitted Infections



Sexually transmitted infections (STI) administration is a public effectively being priority all through the globe. There are free and confidential corporations equipped inside the UK by the use of sexual effectively being clinics nonetheless, people which will be on the best hazard (that is, youthful people) report going by means of boundaries to using these corporations. On this analysis, the authors explored the acceptability and worth of an STI testing toolkit amongst a youthful inhabitants aged 16-24 years.

Evaluation in nursing is important as a result of it legitimizes the profession even as a result of it offers to the physique of data and nursing education. Critiquing evaluation permits for the robustness of the analysis to be analyzed as this allows for any reader or researcher to validate the generalizability of the findings. That's mandatory with regard to proof based apply as EBP makes use of correctly designed analysis to create a problem fixing technique in effectively being care. EBP improves affected particular person outcomes and objectives at decreasing affected particular person consequence variations due to this fact critiquing a evaluation article ensures that the findings are related in each different comparable scenario with among the finest affected particular person outcomes as the final word expectation. This paper will analyze the analysis carried out by Aicken et al (2016) and highlight on the strengths and weaknesses of it. The robustness of the analysis will doubtless be critiqued and a final conclusion given on the end of the paper.

Key phrases used: sexually transmitted infections; validity of research; self testing.

The essential factor elements inside the evaluation paper

The findings from the analysis by Aicken et al., (2016) counsel that on-line care pathways and distant self testing for STI has a extreme chance of acceptance as long as non-public assist, privateness, and accuracy points are addressed. In addition to, based mostly totally on the outcomes from this analysis, the design of the intervention ought to moreover embody problems with most of the people effectively being, scientific safety, and what's potential with regard to know-how. In rising the intervention, the researchers have to know that youthful people wish to keep their use of sexual healthcare a secret and this comprises STI prognosis too. Nearly sexual healthcare use proof exhibiting on the Smartphones, cautions should be taken with regard to sender's title and textual content material message wording. Extra, web-apps that are not put in or downloadable to the particular person's cellphone will be utilized barely than using native apps. Moreover, the self testing Smartphone enabled service ought to incorporate NHS branding as this might instil a level of trustworthiness.  For enhanced velocity and likewise privateness from household and associates, the self testing service could possibly be linked to e-prescription corporations with native pharmacies as this might present a higher totally different to having the treatment delivered by the use of postal corporations (this in spite of everything will depend on the character of the STI and the treatment that is advisable).

Sexual effectively being clinics have utterly totally different enhancements akin to mute testing the place scientific data and registration is equipped on digital or paper format (Fernando & Thompson, 2013, p. 341; Pittrof & McLellan, 2007, p.274) and which already meet privateness desires for youthful people looking for entry to sexual effectively being. Nonetheless, the analysis by Aicken et al., (2016) reveals distant entry option to accessing sexual effectively being care may overcome any further boundaries and finish in earlier STI detection. As long as people are ready to profit from the online care pathways in accessing rapid treatment, public effectively being benefits will be harnessed from decline in transmission of STI and ensuing points which will be linked to future an an infection.

A critical limitation to the analysis was that it did not deal with an mandatory hazard group: the gay males. Males who've intercourse with males had been excluded on this analysis because of the researchers did not have to compromise the privateness of people that weren't open about their sexual orientation.

One different limitation was that the people had been all non-white. Although this was just about inevitable because of the placement of the college the place majority of the students are non-white, those that had been approached declined to participate for causes unknown. In addition to, the required number of girls to fill the 20-24 sampling quota (6-Eight people) did not happen (n=2) which leaves the outcomes of the analysis open to interpretation and analysis.

Believability of the evaluation analysis

Author Credentials

The paper has featured quite a lot of authors with the precept authors being:

Catherine R. H. Aicken: MSc., BSc (Hons)Faculty College Evaluation Division of An an infection and Inhabitants Nicely being, London.

Sebastian S. Fuller: PhD. St,. George's Faculty Institute for An an infection and Immunity, London

Lorna J. Sutcliffe: MSc. Registered Nurse on the Blizard Institute, Nicely being Suppliers Evaluation (LSHTM), London and Barts College of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Immunology and Infectious Illnesses, Queen Mary Faculty of London

Others embody: Claudia S. Estcourt, Pippa Oakeshott, Voula Gkatzidou, Kate Hone, Pam Sonnenberg, S. Tariq Sadiq, and Maryam Shahmanesh,

Writing Mannequin of the authors

AMA referencing has been used on this paper with the authors using Vigorous voice. The paper has an abstract that summarizes the essential factor elements found inside the physique. The in-text citations used are numerals in brackets for each reference.

Title of the analysis

The title of the paper is Youthful people’s perceptions of Smartphone enabled self-testing and on-line take care of sexually transmitted infections: qualitative interview analysis. The title is clear and reflective of all of the analysis as talked about inside the paper

Abstract a part of the paper.

The abstract offers a summary of the analysis executed by the researchers; what the analysis entailed, the methodology used, the outcomes of the analysis, and a conclusion. It moreover has 6 key phrases which are based on the topic materials of the paper.

Robustness of the analysis

Evaluation Disadvantage/ Significance

Evaluation Disadvantage: Extreme prevalence of STI amongst youth inside the UK and additional notably in a Extra Education faculties in London

Operate of the analysis: present data on the occasion of the proposed e-health intervention (Craig, Dieppe, & Macintyre, 2008, p. 1; Catwell & Sheikh, 2009,) whose objective is to be an adjunct versus being a various to the current corporations.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence in England is a significant issue to public effectively being with the youthful inhabitants being vulnerable to an an infection (Sonnenberg, Clifton, & Beddows, 2013, p.1795; Public Nicely being England, 2015). STI corporations intention at determining, diagnosing and treating people who exhibit the asymptomatic infections, with the intention of stopping transmission and minimizing medical points which will be associated to future and repetitive an an infection. Nonetheless, attending an STI clinic is perceived by some people as a kind of stigmatisation (Normansell, Drennan, & Oakeshott, 2015, p322; PHE, 2015) which impacts on the experiences and expectations of attending the clinic in a detrimental means.

An STI self testing method that is Smartphone enabled and which is linked to on-line scientific pathways of administration presents a flowery and distinctive intervention. Although there are presently some STI sort of care that is on the market on-line (Woodhall, Sile, & Talebi et al., 2012, p.23, Richardson, Maple, & Perry, 2010, p.187; Huang, Gaydos, & Barnes et al, 2013, p. 108), the proposed intervention goes previous these pathways.

Home self-testing acceptability qualitative evaluation (Rompalo, Hsieh, & Hoganet al., 2013, p. 541) and use of the online with regard to STI testing (Friedman & Bloodgood, 2013, p. 96; Hottes, Farrell, Bondyra et al., 2012, p. 42; Shoveller, Knight, Davis et al., 2102, p. 14) recommend that there is reservation amongst potential clients with regard to examine reliability, safety, confidentiality, and privateness. Most of these analysis had been executed in Canada and US (that is utterly totally different contexts of effectively being service) and transferability of the findings to the proposed intervention is not potential. Subsequently, it was very important for the researchers to conduct a formative analysis that can present data on the occasion of the proposed e-health intervention (Craig, Dieppe, & Macintyre, 2008, p. 1; Catwell & Sheikh, 2009,) whose objective is to be an adjunct versus being a various to the current corporations.

The analysis by Aicken et al., (2016) explored the acceptability and perceptions of distant self testing of STI and the related on-line treatment care pathways (on the time of the analysis it was a hypothetical intervention), amongst youth from a locality in Inside London that had extreme prevalence costs of STIs (PHE, 2013) and massive African ethnic and Black Caribbean populations.  The inhabitants under analysis is reflective of the reality that town youth populations may be new utilized sciences' early adopters and are thus regarded as potential buyers of the service as quickly because it's launched in the end

This analysis was undertaken in the middle of the early phases of the intervention's progress and was part of and formative evaluation program which equipped data on the occasion of the self testing STI on-line care pathway. Additional formative evaluation put into consideration design of the particular person interface (Gkatzidou, Hone, & Sutcliffe et al., 2015, p. 72) and scientific safety and prime quality (Gibbs, Sutcliffe, & Sadiq et al., 2014, p. 69) which along with this analysis resulted to a modern analysis of proof-of-concept of a web-based Chlamydia care pathway with evaluations using mixed-method. Survey evaluation equipped proof that was indicative with regard to particular person inhabitants, and machine progress for self-testing (Aicken, Estcourt, & Johnson et al., 2016) is ongoing.

Literature Overview

There was no sufficient literature equipped on this paper. The authors recognized that they'd been unaware of each different evaluation that explored the distant self-testing acceptability related to on-line STI care seeing that the intervention that the researchers proposed was distinctive. Nonetheless, the proposed intervention comprises some parts which have been evaluated albeit to a restricted extent in numerous analysis. One such analysis was a qualitative evaluation that involved youthful girls inside the US which was carried out between 2007 and 2008, and which reported reservations with regard to STI testing using ht net and included unavailable non-public assist, info security and on-line privateness (Friedman et al, 2013), which are a lot much less distinguished in reported findings of comparable analysis executed amongst youthful Canadians (Shoveller et al., 2015).

This analysis by Aicken et al., (2016) confirmed comparable findings with regard to want to get assist from healthcare professionals after constructive prognosis is made. Most people talked about privateness from family and associates as being mandatory in relation to alternative for self testing barely than going to a sexual effectively being clinic and selection for messaging that is discrete. Nonetheless, on-line security, confidentiality/privateness elicited fewer points. This was perhaps a reflection of the analysis sample's possession of Smartphones and the boldness they've inside the NHS that they described.

Study Design/Methodology

Study Inhabitants

The people for this analysis had been recruited from a Extra Education college in Inside London. FE faculties inside the UK present education that is post-compulsory for people aged 16 years and above, usually vocational and are utterly totally different from universities which offer tutorial qualifications of diploma diploma. FE faculties are inclined to have an over-representation of people from socio-economic groups which will be lower. The students that had been eligible for the analysis had been these aged between 16-24 years and who had self-reported as having been involved in sexual train not lower than as quickly as.


Primarily based on Bryman, (2008, p.6) evaluation methodology may be perceived as a result of the method which  silhouettes in an entire technique, our various and utilization of express methods and relating  them to anticipated outcomes nonetheless, the number of evaluation methodology depends on the evaluation disadvantage choices and the evaluation (Noor, 2008, p. 1602) .

Basically essentially the most acceptable evaluation methodology is Qualitative evaluation methodology referring to investigating a model new analysis self-discipline or when aiming to theorize and make sure pertinent factors (Creswell, 2007, p. 23; Corbin &Strauss, 2007, p.14).  

The evaluation by Aicken et al., (2016) was relevant as a result of it used in-depth interviews the place people aged between 16-24 years and who had self reported as being sexually expert had been recruited inside the 2012 analysis. The people had been from metropolis Extra Education faculties inside areas of extreme prevalence of STI. The analysis undertook a thematic analysis.  


The people included 16 males and 9 females. 21people had been self outlined as Black, one was Asian/Muslim, and three had been from a blended ethnicity. 22 people reported as having experience in sexual train, 2 people reported having been recognized with an STI beforehand, and all people owned Smartphones.

The sample used was reputable as a result of it represented the inhabitants under analysis.

Ethical Points

The data assortment method was reputable as a result of the people signed a written consent to be interviewed. In addition to, the researchers purchased approval from the Ethics committee on the Faculty College London to conduct the interviews. The researchers moreover included of their paper transcriptions from people with a purpose to level out and permit understanding.

Data Assortment

People in semi-structured interviews are required to answer in an in-depth technique, open ended questions which will be preset. They're utilized in interviewing individuals and groups and are carried out solely as quickly as (Corbin &Strauss, 2008, p.18) the scale of the interviews is generally half an hour or further. Data recording is completed by the use of audio or video recording with the researcher at events opting to place in writing down key elements though that's the exception barely than the norm. The evaluation by Aicken et al., 2016 used semi structured interviews which had been audio recorded. The recording of the interviews and transcription of the equivalent validate the data assortment method used

Data Analysis

The analysis undertook a thematic analysis the place the primary themes and recurring messages had been used to vary the interview inquiries to make the software program further associated and proper. The people had been enthusiastic in regards to the new corporations that the researchers proposed and hinted that they may use the machine and unfold the phrase to their associates along with availing themselves for added testing of the service. Using sexual healthcare was seen as being loads easy and faster with the online self testing for STI scientific care which allowed for STI testing concealment type family and friends and averted consultations that had been embarrassing. Nonetheless, even with these anticipated advantages on privateness, totally different privateness points arose with regard to communication know-how: further so the inherent hazard of STI prognosis and outcomes being retrievable or seen on the Smartphone. Completely different points arose with regard to the accuracy of the proposed check out, novelty of the know-how, and self operation. Some people expressed nervousness of the potential prognosis and treatment with out shifting into any contact with a healthcare expert. The analysis concluded that the distant on-line care self testing was attention-grabbing to the youthful people as a result of it addressed boundaries that commonplace STI corporations had been associated to. This may be useful to most of the people effectively being by the use of early diagnoses and treatment. The findings from the evaluation underpin on-line care pathways presently in developmental phases.


The proposal of a novel treatment and self-testing on-line STI technique was acceptable to the people who had been chosen from a extreme prevalence house. In making a alternative between using the current corporations for STI testing and the self-testing, the people tried to stability three predominant components: privateness, consolation, and velocity. Privateness was seen as being maintained by the use of the utilization of distant self-testing by the use of decreasing the possibility of family members and associates discovering the people' utilization of sexual healthcare, by the use of avoidance of visiting a sexual effectively being clinic, and through potential embarrassing encounters of nostril to nostril healthcare consultations. When these privateness points are addressed, and facilitation of testing entry is completed, the people stated that they may check out further usually or would check out not lower than as quickly as, if the selection of distant testing availed to them.

There have been totally different new privateness points that the people had been made aware of and these included use of sexual healthcare proof, STI prognosis proof on their Smartphones, treatment provision by the use of submit, and on-line info security. The people gave descriptions on the quite a lot of utterly alternative ways during which they may deal with the hazards and likewise how the design of the intervention may guarantee that the beneficial hazard administration could be built-in into the final word product whereas however totally different people considered on-line info breech as inevitable.

There was distinction inside the enthusiasm for the model new know-how among the many many people with some doubting the speedy accuracy of the self operated check out and however expressed no doubts of the normal testing methods. The discomfort of some of the people with regard to the sexual effectively being consultations differed with the desires they anticipated and receiving constructive outcomes, or with explicit points: looking for individualized assist from healthcare personnel. Self testing credibility elevated along with info security, and on-line care, when it was associated to NHS corporations or healthcare professionals. Nonetheless, because of the analysis was undertaken sooner than the STI self testing machine was made on the market and dealing inside the on-line care pathways, the researchers wanted to depend upon the people' understanding and engagement with a novel albeit hypothetical intervention.

Most people stated that providing treatment to their companions was an chance they may uncover powerful to work together with, perhaps because of the private nature of the topic under analysis and its abstract nature (the people had been required to consider a context the place they'd been engaged in sexual relations which resulted in an an infection occurring and likewise receiving constructive outcomes after using the self-testing machine).


The implications from this analysis for insurance coverage insurance policies, scientific apply, education, and evaluation are essential. The analysis reinforces the need for the availability of interventions which will be carried out by professionals inside the self-discipline of healthcare and additional so nurses, who can attain the extreme hazard areas. The analysis equipped notion on youthful people's points near to STI and their need for privateness whereas on the same time the necessity to get assist from a healthcare expert (on this case a nurse).

Utilizing the self testing machine could possibly be utilized by nurses in enhancing their education along with an intervention software program with their victims. The machine may be instrumental in teaching provision to scientific nurses on prevention, and likewise on elimination of stigmatization attitudes in direction of STI victims by nurses and totally different healthcare workers (Cianelli et al., 2011, p.three; Norr et al., 2012, p.73). When nurses are expert in using the self testing machine, they'll improve their understanding an angle whereas utilizing an atmosphere pleasant and non threatening software program.


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