Posted: July 25th, 2021

Literature review On Oral Contraceptive Use And Risk of HIV/AIDS

Evaluation Question: Does oral contraceptive use have an effect on ones perceived menace of HIV/AIDs amongst youthful women (18-25 years of age) in Jackson Mississippi.

Oral contraceptives can be medically outlined as a kind of contraception pill taken orally, which regularly includes hormones akin to estrogen and progesterone, and serve the purpose of stopping the ovary from releasing the egg very important for fertilization (Shiel, 2018). “Presently there are three sorts of oral contraceptives; estrogen-progesterone, progesterone and extended use pill” (Cooper, 2019) and about 25% of women ages 15 to 44 use it as their important mode of contraception (Cooper, 2019). Under the cheap care act in Jackson, Mississippi, women are able to resolve up these contraceptives at a pharmacy with out price (Andrews, 2013) or may get reimbursement from their insurance coverage protection agency if purchased with a medical prescription. That's significantly widespread amongst youthful women, as oral contraceptive use tends to decrease with age.

Analysis having a look at condom use and perceived menace of STI/HIV has generated fixed findings with agreeing that whereas “males’s condom use should not be associated to any perceived menace of STI, women’s condom use is (Leval, 2011) or that right analysis of menace was associated to elevated condom use (Prata, 2006). In a analysis carried out in Sweden by Leval et al, 2011, they checked out condom use and perceived STI menace in men and women. They're saying variations in perceived STI menace in relationships with momentary companions and eternal companions between men and women. Males confirmed no correlation between condom use and perceived STI menace for momentary and eternal companions whereas women confirmed a sturdy correlation with momentary companions. Whereas throughout the analysis carried out by Prata et al, 2006 in Mozambique, an analysis of HIV menace and condom use by resident’s ages15 to 24 confirmed the “prevalence of condom use was twice as extreme amongst those who precisely perceived their HIV menace as compared with those who incorrectly assessed their menace” (Prata et al, 2006). And individuals who incorrectly assessed HIV menace had low condom utilization (Prata et al, 2006).

Whereas, other than condoms, contraceptive methods akin to hormonal oral contraceptives or hormonal injections do not actively forestall HIV acquisition, the literature is conflicted whether or not or not there is a hyperlink between hormonal contraceptive use and elevated HIV menace. Quite a lot of analysis have been carried out in Mombasa, Kenya observing the affiliation between hormonal contraceptive use and menace of HIV-1. The outcomes current an affiliation between use of oral contraceptives and elevated HIV-1 menace amongst high-risk women (intercourse workers) with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.46 and 95% confidence interval of 1.00 – 2.13. (Baeten, 2007). One different paper which carried out a scientific analysis of eight analysis, that had been evaluating the affiliation between menace of HIV and oral contraceptive use, had merely definitely certainly one of them reporting essential elevated menace of HIV acquisition and oral contraceptive use” (Haddad, 2014) and the others confirmed insignificant findings. (their 95% confidence interval crossed One occasion of a analysis that confirmed no affiliation between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV is the Morrison et al. analysis “which after using a cox proportional hazards model found no essential improve in menace” (Morrison, 2010). Nonetheless altogether there are far more analysis, which advocate there could also be some hyperlink, albeit small, between oral contraceptive use and HIV menace. (Haddad, 2014). The inconsistency throughout the outcomes could be attributed to the constraints, most quite a lot of these analysis have, akin to variations in sample dimension, analysis design, contraceptive adherence, analytic measures used and price of discontinuation (Hadddad, 2014) and this limits their generalizability.

So primarily based totally on the above literature analysis now we've got seen that contraceptive use can create an affiliation between folks perceived menace of HIV/STI. Moreover there are associations between those who precisely assess their HIV menace have better condom utilization and individuals who don’t have lower condom utilization. And lastly there could also be an affiliation in some cases between hormonal oral contraceptive use and elevated menace of HIV. Nonetheless there hasn’t been lots evaluation into the perform of oral contraceptives performs in determining perceived HIV menace, if any. If there is a decreased perceived menace of HIV an an infection amongst these on oral contraceptives that will account for the seen affiliation between oral contraceptive use and menace of HIV an an infection. And given that there appears to be lower condom utilization amongst these that may not exactly assess their HIV menace, that might also help make clear seen affiliation between HIV menace and oral contraceptives and environment friendly protection solutions can be made to counteract this. So for this analysis, the hypothesis we might be testing is oral contraceptive use leads to decreased perceived HIV menace amongst youthful women 18 to 25 in Jackson, Mississippi.

 The favored sampling methodology to be used throughout the analysis might be the stratified sampling methodology. It's as a result of there is a huge disparity in HIV costs primarily based totally on social determinants akin to race in Jackson, Mississippi and it is going to be among the best methods to ensure there could also be an equal guide of all races reasonably than merely random sampling. One occasion of these disparities is than in Jackson Mississippi “the velocity of black females residing with HIV to white females is 10.2”(AIDSVu, 2017) and the number of new HIV prognosis by race are 88.eight% black, 1.5% Hispanic and 7.1% white (AIDSVu, 2017).

Works cited

  1. AIDSVu. (2019). Native Data: Jackson. Retrieved from
  2. Andrews, M. 2013. With a Little Planning, Women Can Get Emergency Contraceptives for Free. Jackson Free Press. Retrieved from:
  3. Baeten, J. M., Benki, S., Chohan, V., Lavreys, L., McClelland, R. S., Ndinya-Achola, J. O., Jaoko, W., Overbaugh, J. 2007. Hormonal contraceptive use, herpes simplex virus an an infection and menace of HIV-1 acquisition amongst Kenyan women. AIDS, 20;21(13), pg 1771-1777. Doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328270388a
  4. Cooper, B. D., Adigun, R., Bhimji, S. S. 2019. Oral Contraceptive Tablets. StatPearls. Retrieved from:
  5. Haddad, B. L., Polis, B. C., Sheth, N. A., Brown, J., Kourtis, P. A., King, C, Chakraborty, R and Ofotokun, I. 2014. Contraceptive Methods and Menace of HIV Acquisition or Female-to-Male Transmission. Current HIV/AIDS Report, 11(4): pg 447-458 doi: 10.1007/s11904-014-0236-6
  6. Leval, A., Sundström, Okay., Ploner, A., Dahlström A. L., Widmark, C. and Sparén Pär. 2011. Assessing Perceived Menace and STI Prevention Conduct: A Nationwide Inhabitants-Based Analysis with Explicit Reference to HPV. PLOS ONE, 6 (6): e20624, doi:
  7.  Morrison C. S., Chen, P. L., Kwok, C., Richardson, B. A., Chipato, T., Mugerwa, R., Byamugisha, J,…, Salata, R. A. 2010. Hormonal Contraception and HIV acquisition: reanalysis using marginal structural modeling. AIDS, 24(11), pg 1778-1781.
  8. Ndola, P., Elizio, L. M., Farnaz, M., Vahidnia and Stehr, M. 2006. Relationship Between HIV Menace Notion And Condom Use: Proof from a Inhabitants-Based Survey in Mozambique. Worldwide Family Planning Views, 32(4), pg 192-200. Doi: 10.1363/ifpp.32.192.06
  9. Shiel, C. W. 2019. Medical Definition of Oral Contraceptive. MedicineNet. Retrieved from:


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