Posted: July 24th, 2021

NURSING 7030 Nursing Research : Effectiveness of Music Therapy


Melancholy and Dementia are important nicely being points that are broadly encountered whereas delivering care in geriatric ward in healthcare settings and aged care services. As highlighted by Leyhe et al., (2017) plenty of the victims affected by dementia are recognized to endure from despair and loneliness which as soon as extra is linked with cognitive impairment. Melancholy has been proposed to be a severe hazard subject for dementia, and a prodrome of the scenario as properly. The superior relationship between despair, loneliness and dementia has been broadly explored about in literature. Quite a lot of strategies have been explored persistently for understanding their applicability in reducing despair and loneliness in aged victims affected by dementia. One amongst such key strategies is music treatment. Music treatment refers back to the utilization of specialized musical interventions and strategies for attaining care targets on the concept of the individual analysis of the affected individual. The purpose of music treatment is to promote the wellbeing and nicely being of the affected individual by way of promotion and restoration of emotional, non secular, psychological and bodily nicely being (Steffens, 2017).

Evaluation question

Is music treatment environment friendly in reducing despair and loneliness in institutionalized aged victims affected by dementia?

Significance of the proposal

There could also be an absence of quantitative analysis which have explored the outcomes of novice strategies for low cost of indicators of despair and loneliness in aged dementia victims, just like music treatment. Quantitative evaluation is important as a result of it objectives to supply an appropriate picture of the effectiveness of positive interventions in relation to the care purpose. The present proposal subsequently outlines a evaluation framework which will info an empirical analysis to be carried out to verify the  As highlighted by Leyhe et al., (2017) plenty of the victims affected by dementia are recognized to endure from despair and loneliness which as soon as extra is linked with cognitive impairment. in reducing despair and loneliness in dementia aged victims.

Conceptual framework

Numerous analysis have examined the affect of music treatment on dementia victims that entice from a conceptual framework. The fashions of care which had been highlighted on this regard are Kitwood’s model of person-centered care (Fazio et al., 2018), and the need-driven, dementia-compromised conduct model (NDB) model (Berry, Youthful & Kim, 2017). Based mostly totally on these two fashions, a conceptual consideration is developed that varieties the framework for the present proposal. That's as follows-

             Literature overview 

As talked about by Wu et al., (2017) dementia prevalence is rising at an alarming payment inside the updated interval. There could also be subsequently a necessity of delivering specialist care encompassing the holistic needs of the actual individual. Therapies ought to give consideration to the psychological wellbeing of the person who comprises nicely being elements just like despair and loneliness. Aged dementia victims institutionalized in healthcare settings are generally found to be affected by despair and loneliness, which have a unfavourable consequence on their nicely being. Low cost of despair and poor psychological nicely being standing holds the potential to bolster the probabilities of nicely being promotion for the affected individual (Freedman et al., 2018).

Brooks et al., (2017) recognized the continual evaluation is being carried out for understanding the effectiveness of novice and promising interventions for addressing dementia related poor nicely being points just like despair and loneliness. One amongst such interventions is music treatment which refers back to the utilization of musical interventions for supporting care needs of victims with quite a few needs. van der Steen et al., (2018) talked about that music treatment is a big self-discipline and holds the potential to deal with a considerable number of nicely being points, along with despair and loneliness. O’Rourke et al., (2015) found of their systematic overview and meta-analysis of qualitative analysis that music treatment has a constructive impression on the final top quality of lifetime of dementia victims. The elements that led to increase in top quality of lifetime of dementia victims had been having a manner of purpose in life, augmentation in social relationships and sense of belonging. Schall et al., (2015) by way of their analysis assessed the subjective wellbeing of dementia victims when equipped with music treatment. it was found that dementia victims institutionalized in care properties categorical constructive emotions after being subjected to music treatment. Music treatment could also be helpful for encouraging the strategy of social interaction, thereby reducing indicators of loneliness. In a qualitative analysis, Dennnis and Rickson (2014) had come all through the reality that music treatment is primitive in fostering a manner of neighborhood in dementia victims admitted to a care setting. That's potential by way of enchancment of relationships between the victims and their respective family members. On this regard, the analysis of Melhuish et al., (2015) found that music treatment labored effectively for enhancing the connection between dementia affected individual residents and the care staff. It was moreover well-known that music treatment lowered stage of isolation in victims by way of conduct change as victims may work along with each other in a further social-able and important methodology.

Ray and Mittleman (2015) from their analysis inferred that participation in music treatment can in the reduction of indicators of despair in dementia victims. This effectiveness is further profound when intervention is obtainable together with customary care. The outcomes had been obtained after provide of music treatment intervention after two weeks. In the identical analysis carried out by Chu et al., (2014), the researchers highlighted that group intervention for music treatment may significantly decrease indicators of despair in residents with dementia.

Tang et al., (2018) highlighted that there is mounting proof referring to the utilization of music treatment for dementia victims. Nonetheless there exists a shortage of analysis that uncover the affect of music treatment for dementia in a sturdy methodology. Which means that the methodologies used inside the analysis have in depth limitations. The absence of rigorously managed analysis have impaired the pliability to draw clear thought referring to the extent to which music treatment could also be environment friendly for dementia victims for controlling despair and loneliness. In short, no substantial proof lies for supporting use of music treatment for older adults with dementia. Quite a few substantive gaps have been highlighted in extant literature referring to the affect of music treatment on enchancment of top quality of lifetime of dementia victims. A major gap is throughout the utilization of music treatment for enhancing the scenario related to despair and loneliness. The topic is of loads important significance in the intervening time interval in relation to the care provide of dementia victims admitted to healthcare settings. Fang et al., (2017) rationalized the need of further analysis in relation to affect of music treatment of dementia adults which have the give consideration to low cost of psychological wellbeing standing associated to dementia. Due to foremost challenges confronted by healthcare professionals in caring for aged dementia victims, it is thought-about essential that further evaluation is carried out to find the impression of music treatment on despair and loneliness of aged dementia victims.

Evaluation design and methodology

Method and design

The proposed evaluation is to have a quantitative evaluation methodology which will effectively cope with the question of whether or not or not music treatment can in the reduction of despair and loneliness in elder dementia victims in geriatric ward. The rationale for referring to a quantitative evaluation methodology is multi-faceted. Adhering to a quantitative evaluation approach would ensure that a sound evaluation question is addressed in a style that does not enable emotional parts to be included inside the evaluation. Extra, scientific prediction of data generated and consequent inference permits sound data expertise from the evaluation (Parahoo, 2014). As recognized by Moule, Aveyard and Goodman (2016) information generated from a quantitative evaluation approach is always by way of a structured evaluation instrument, thereby enhancing the validity of the evaluation. The outcomes will even be thought-about as a marketing consultant of the larger inhabitants. A clear evaluation question could also be addressed in a particular methodology.

The proposed evaluation could possibly be a randomized managed trial that objectives to conduct a very good examination of a positive treatment to know its effectiveness on the chosen inhabitants (Grove & Gray, 2018). In such a analysis, members are allotted to 2 or further groups whereby one group receives a positive treatment and one different group is subjected to control intervention. The justification for selecting this evaluation design can be distinct and to be talked about on this regard. With such form of evaluation, the effectiveness of a treatment could also be in distinction with one different treatment or absence of treatment. The analysis design could also be helpful for making causal inferences (Parahoo, 2014). Extra, in a randomized managed trial, alternative bias and allocation bias is eradicated. The attainable analysis design is helpful in minimizing recall error. Randomized managed trial has been acknowledged as a gold commonplace for conducting evaluation to know the effectiveness of interventions. Such sort of analysis is subsequently further publishable.


The evaluation is to be carried out at a reputed healthcare aged care centre that institutionalizes dementia victims. An entire number of thirty victims are to be recruited for the analysis. The analysis would include every and women above the age of 65 years. The inclusion requirements could possibly be evaluation of mild despair as outlined by the Geriatric Melancholy Scale (GDS-SF) ranking between 5 and eight. Victims affected by despair due to psychotic factors, victims on anti-depressive medicines, victims with mood issues, sleep issues, having despair due to pure issues, victims with listening to points and other people in need of cognitive behavioural treatment could possibly be excluded from the analysis.

 Potential victims fulfilling the eligibility requirements would bear random sampling for being chosen for the evaluation. Random sampling is a sampling method by which each and every potential participant has the prospect of being chosen for the analysis. A sample chosen on this method is an unbiased illustration of the broader inhabitants. Such sort of sampling is an easy however environment friendly strategy of recruiting members in a analysis. The primary profit is that there is an accuracy of illustration of the analysis and ease of use. There could also be no less complicated approach for extracting a evaluation sample from the larger inhabitants (Grove & Gray, 2018). Members could possibly be randomly allotted to each the administration group or the intervention group. Each group could possibly be having fifteen members.

Gadgets to be used

The Geriatric Melancholy Scale-Fast Sort (GDS-SF) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (mannequin three) could possibly be used for the information assortment purpose inside the proposed evaluation. Quite a few gadgets have been made accessible to measure despair in affected individual inhabitants. Nonetheless, the GDS-SF has been broadly use for ending up evaluation with the elder inhabitants. The form has a set of 30 questions which the members are required to answer by responding in positive or no. The validity and reliability of the instrument is marked in literature. The instrument has a sensitivity of 92% and its specificity is 89% when evaluation is accomplished in the direction of diagnostic requirements (Durmaz et al., 2018). The UCLA loneliness scale is used for measuring the subjective feelings in relation to loneliness alongside folks. The scores predict various psychological nicely being outcomes in relation to loneliness. The instrument has flip into primarily essentially the most broadly referred to gadgets for measuring loneliness (Shevlin, Murphy & Murphy, 2015).

Info assortment approach

The analysis is to be carried out for a interval of 1 month on the aged care setting chosen. Members inside the experimental or intervention group could possibly be collaborating inside the group singing train that is likely to be carried out by the researcher. The group singing train could possibly be carried out four cases per week for four weeks. Size of the group singing train could possibly be of spherical thirty minutes each. Each session would begin with the theme of energizing and de-stressing. The other themes that is likely to be thought-about for the singing courses are self-expression, administration of emotions, bonding and sharing. For the theme of energizing and de-stressing, the favorite songs of the participant group as a complete could possibly be thought-about for initiating participation inside the courses. For self-expression, primarily essentially the most favorite tune for each participant could possibly be thought-about. For sharing and bonding, the favorite tune of others inside the group could possibly be thought-about. For administration of emotions, songs could possibly be sung with physique actions and percussion with the help of arms giving vent to the emotions. The administration group could possibly be receiving no express intervention. Baseline analysis and weekly analysis could possibly be thought-about for every the groups with the help of the GDS-SF and UCLA Loneliness Scale. An analysis of despair and loneliness could possibly be carried out inside the respective methodology (Mathew et al., 2017).

Info analysis approach

Statistical approach could possibly be used for analyzing the information generated from the evaluation. For the proposed paper it will likely be acceptable to utilize the Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon W price approach. The Mann-whitney U check out is a nonparametric check out of the null hypothesis and determines whether or not or not two unbiased samples had been chosen from inhabitants of an identical distribution. Wilcoxon W price approach is helpful for evaluating two matched samples for assessing whether or not or not the inhabitants suggest ranks have any variations (Parahoo  et al., 2017). 

Ethical consideration

Confidentiality is basically essentially the most important parts of ethical consideration whereas ending up evaluation with human members. Upholding the confidentiality and privateness of the members could possibly be thee central tenet of the proposed evaluation. The personal data of the members would not be revealed after the evaluation and responses to the information assortment could possibly be anonymous. The members would even have the freedom to find out upon how loads data they'd provide relating to personal information. It could possibly be inappropriate to accumulate contact data for solicitation of participation in evaluation (Bromley et al., 2015). The second part of study ethics is educated consent that implies that the members have given voluntary participation inside the evaluation. For gaining educated consent from the members, the purpose of the evaluation along with the procedures an interval and evaluation could possibly be outlined. The members would have the becoming to withdraw from the evaluation at any deadline whereas the evaluation is being carried out. The attainable benefits of the evaluation could possibly be outlined to the members (Grady, 2015). The data collected from the evaluation could possibly be saved in a secured methodology out of attain of third social gathering. Digital information storage could possibly be achieved by encrypted filed. Participant data could possibly be deleted after the evaluation could possibly be full (Doody & Noonan, 2016).


The proposed analysis could also be marked by positive limitations just like smaller sampling dimension and transient interval of music treatment intervention. It might be potential that intervention delivered for an prolonged interval could have an effect on the analysis outcomes. Nonetheless, the proposed analysis holds helpful implication for observe inside the healthcare space. The analysis could possibly be noteworthy in providing notion into the effectiveness of music treatment in reducing despair and loneliness in aged dementia victims. It may supposedly present a glimpse of how music treatment can improve the usual of lifetime of aged inhabitants affected by the progressive neurodegenerative scenario. The analysis would moreover current an account of how music treatment inside the kind of group singing can convey enchancment inside the top quality of lifetime of aged dementia victims. Evaluation components out these healthcare professionals face immense burden in caring for elder dementia victims as a result of the prevalence of despair and loneliness is further frequent amongst this inhabitants. Considering the outcomes of the proposed literature, and referring to exiting literature, healthcare professionals can take into consideration implementation of music treatment for addressing despair and loneliness in aged dementia affected individual. On the end of the analysis, music treatment could also be thought-about as a significant gadget for enhancing top quality of lifetime of dementia victims institutionalized in healthcare setting.


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