Posted: August 4th, 2021

Nursing Care and Management for Elderly Patient Sample for Students


Hazard of geriatric syndromes, sensible decline, and continuous illness, are a danger to older adults' correctly being. 43% of Medicare beneficiaries report having higher than three continuous conditions along with coronary coronary heart sickness, most cancers, and arthritis (Federal Interagency Dialogue board on Age Related Statistics, 2010). Experiences from surveys moreover level out that 42% of people above 65years of age dwell with a sensible limitation. In a single look at, the outcomes confirmed that one or a variety of geriatric syndromes are reported in 25% of the older inhabitants (Lee, Cigolle & Blaum, 2008). Furthermore, older adults spend a lot much less of their time talking and socializing as they advance in age (Federal Interagency Dialogue board on Age Related Statistics, 2010). This results in an accumulation of the sensible decline and interaction impairments which exacerbates the actual particular person's vulnerability (Innouye, Studenski, Tinetti, & Kuchel, 2007). This report will analyze the sensible penalties in relation to Barbra's current medical situation (Hunter, 2016) and take advantage of scientific reasoning to map a plan in the direction of her wellness and restoration (Levett-Jones, 2013).

Affected particular person's Description

Title: Barbra Inexperienced

Age: 89 Years

Marital Standing: Widow

Barbara experiences joint stiffness; enlarged joints and swollen toes; ache in joints significantly the once more, hip, fingers, and knee; restricted movement on the joints; constipation; dry macular degeneration; occasional dizziness; constipation,  and weight discount. Her efficiency has deteriorated which has resulted in decreased social functioning, poor residing conditions, and as well as poor consuming habits. She is extra more likely to be non-adherent to her medicine.

The age related modifications embody the seen deficit as a consequence of dry macular degeneration (Boyd, 2017) and constipation (Schuster, Kosar, & Kamrul, 2015).  The hazard elements embody poor weight reduction program, use of some explicit a variety of therapy (polypharmacy) and diminished bodily train which are recognized causes of constipation among the many many aged (Neri, Basilisco, & Corazziari, 2014). Caucasians are on the subsequent menace of macular degeneration than Hispanics or Africans (Nationwide Eye Institute, 2016) Poor weight reduction program and failure to coach moreover causes fast improvement of early macular degeneration. The damaging penalties of the indicators the affected particular person is experiencing embody social isolation and difficulty in performing actions of every day residing


Information Cues

Barbara lives in a one-story setting up. The joint pains significantly on her knees have restricted her movement and it is seemingly that she avoids climbing the steps in her dwelling which could be an unkempt dwelling. The reality that she has a imaginative and prescient deficit and has stopped driving signifies that procuring journeys to the grocery retailer are restricted or none, significantly because of the prevailing pains on her joints that discourage her to walk. The affected particular person moreover expressed her loneliness as a consequence of  the shortage of her husband and as well as her misplaced contact with associates on the German Affiliation.

Information Course of

Osteoarthritis:  Osteoarthritis is widespread in ladies than in males who're 45 years and above. The sickness occurs when bone cartilage wears and tears and in excessive circumstances, it leaves bones which friction in the direction of each other. The indicators embody: delicate to acute ache inside the joints along with stiffness of joints. It impacts the neck, low once more, arms, weight bearing joints harking back to toes, hips, and knees (Antipuesto, 2010).

Constipation: It's a widespread drawback amongst aged people with prevalence differing with settings (hospital or group). Among the many many inhabitants that is 65years and above and residing in a bunch, 16% of males and 26% of ladies endure from constipation (Gallegos-Orozco, Foxx-Orenstein, Sterler, & Stoa, 2012). For people that are 84 years and above, the rtes enhance to 26% and 34% for men and women respectively. For victims in future care, the pace will improve by 80% (Fleming & Wade, 2010)


Imaginative and prescient Deficit: Macular degeneration that is age related occurs when the retinal macular is damaged resulting in lack of central imaginative and prescient nevertheless the peripheral imaginative and prescient stays common.  Dry macular degeneration is due to some components of the macula getting thinner and drusen grows (Boyd, 2017).

Analysis and Interventions



  1. Aching ache that is deep and which is further pronounced after prepare or weight bearing; ache is relieved by rest
  2. Joint deformity or swelling
  3. Joint stiffness that lasts
  4. Heberden’s nodes on interphalangeal distal joints and Bouchard’s nodes on interphalangeal proximal joints.


Energy ache linked to deterioration of joints.

Diagnostic Evaluation

  1. X-rays current sclerosis and narrowing of joint space in affected joints
  2. Radionuclide imaging displays elevated uptake inside the bones that are affected.
  3. Analysis of synovial fluid displays distinction in osteoathritic and rheumatoid joints.


  1. Involved joints have to be rested.
  2. Affected particular person urged to stay away from ache precipitating actions.
  3. Relieve stiffness and ache using heat capabilities
  4. Educate the affected particular person physique mechanics and posture that is applicable
  5. Affected particular person urged to alleviate cervical ache by sleeping with a terry materials that is rolled beneath the neck.
  6. When indicated, current affected particular person with cane, braes, or crutches, to attenuate weight bearing stress on knees and hips.
  7. Advise affected particular person to placed on metatarsal assist and corrective sneakers.
  8. Educate affected particular person simple motion exercise routines for joint mobility


Affected particular person ought to provide an right indicators historic previous. Indicators of constipation inside the aged embody: stomach ache, urinary retention, lack of urge for meals and nausea, overflow diarrhoea, and confusion. The hazard elements embody polypharmacy, alteration in fluid and dietary consumption, pre-existing diseases harking back to degenerative sickness that affect sensible and mobility standing, difficulty in accessing washroom facilities (Gandel, Straus, & Bundookwala, 2013)



Victims additionally must be equipped coaching and advice on managing their constipation. Simple life-style modifications, harking back to an increase in fluid consumption, widespread prepare and fiber-rich meals is also environment friendly in managing constipation (Gandel, et al., 2013)

Macular Degeneration


  • Blurred imaginative and prescient
  • Seen self-discipline has central blind spot

Nursing Prognosis

  • seen impairment
  • poor properly being repairs as a consequence of lack of know-how
  • Injury menace as a consequence of poor imaginative and prescient
  • Deficit in self care as a consequence of poor imaginative and prescient

Nursing Administration

  • As quickly as affected particular person has a photodynamic treatment (PDT) session, she's going to doubtless be urged to stay away from direct publicity to sunlight or any vibrant delicate for five days Watkins, (2010)


  • Barbara will likely be able to stroll fast distances (which is able to doubtless be elevated with time) with out experiencing discomfort and ache. The hole will doubtless be elevated by 300meters every week. The walks will operate part of her prepare routine and may help with assuaging joint stiffens along with constipation
  • Barbara will likely be able to carry out her every day life actions with no assist along with preparing her private meals.
  • Barbara will regain misplaced weight

Taking Movement

A every day routine timetable will doubtless be created which may level out what prompts to do every hour of the day. The agenda will embody time allocation for temporary walks and reminders on when to sip on water and/or completely different fluids. It is going to moreover current the cases that Barbara should take her therapy.

Barbara may need to purchase a 1Liter water/juice bottle. She's going to doubtless be required to fill it twice a day with water and after she is through sipping it, she may need to fill it with blended fruit juice. The 1l of juice and 1lof water have to be taken each day.

Home safety: Request Tracy to help in rearranging the furnishings in Barbra's dwelling to create further clear pathways to stay away from any incidences of hurt. Prohibit use of area rugs. Have the window curtains pulled all the best way during which once more to create further delicate. Get a talking clock. Place points that Barbara makes use of generally within the similar place: toothbrush, slippers, keys, sneakers and so forth.


Barbara is able to take fast walks each day. She's going to be capable to stroll up and down the steps in her dwelling with none ache discomfort. She is able to do every day residing actions with no assist. Her house is tidier and her fridge and kitchen cabinets are a reflection of extra wholesome cooking and consuming. Barbara research no dizziness and constipation. She has gained 1-2 kg in 4-6 weeks.



I've a clearer understanding on the need to embody widespread exercising and healthful consuming habits in a single's every day routine starting at an early age. By consuming correctly and exercising, age related points harking back to osteoarthritis, macular degeneration, and constipation are delayed.

The next time I will enter appointment reminders in Barbara's mobile phone to verify she is out there in for checkups. I'll even add a column inside the timetable the place the affected particular person may need to put a star(s) after each train to level her adherence. The timetable will even have incentives for each course of completed. In addition to, I should have given Tracy a reproduction of Barbara's timetable so that she's going to monitor Barbara's progress all through her every day calls.


The care of aged victims with osteoarthritis, macular degeneration, and constipation could possibly be efficiently carried out by life-style modifications. The affected particular person on this case was a widow who was residing alone and had disconnected herself socially. The social isolation had resulted in poor consuming habits inflicting her to drop further kilos, exacerbate her imaginative and prescient deficit, report slight dizziness spells, and constipation. By encouraging the affected particular person to work together in widespread exercise routines and extra wholesome consuming which contains every day consumption of water and fiber rich fluids, the affected particular person will likely be able to carry out her every day actions with minimal discomfort. She's going to even be able to return to her social life and cut back or totally take away feelings of loneliness and despair. Nicely being promoting life along with socializing, have to be adopted at an early age to stay away from late life points harking back to talked about on this report.



Antipuesto, J.D (2010). Osteoathritis. Accessed: 03rd April, 2017

Boyd, Okay (2017). What's Macular Degeneration? American Academy of Opthamology. Accessed: 03rd April 2017

Federal Interagency Dialogue board on Getting old-Related Statistics. Federal Interagency Dialogue board on Getting old-Related Statistics. Washington DC: U.S. Authorities Printing Office; Jul, 2010. Older Folks 2010: Key Indicators of Properly-Being.

Fleming V, Wade WE. A analysis of laxative therapies for remedy of continuous constipation in older adults. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2010;eight(6):514–50Gallegos-Orozco JF, Foxx-Orenstein AE, Sterler SM, Stoa JM. Energy constipation inside the aged. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(1):18–25. Epub 2011 Oct 11

Gandell D, Straus SE, Bundookwala M, Tsui V, Alibhai SM. Treatment of constipation in older of us. CMAJ. 2013;185(eight):663–70. Epub 2013 Jan 28. 

Hunter, S. (Ed). (2016). Miller’s nursing for wellness in older adults (2 nd Australia and New Zealand ed.) North Ryde, NSW: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.

Innouye SK, Studenski S, Tinetti ME, Kuchel GA. (2007). Geriatric syndromes: Scientific, evaluation, and protection implications of a core geriatric concept. Journal of American Geriatrics Society. ;55(5):780–791.

Lee PG, Cigolle C, Blaum C. (2009)The co-occurrence of continuous diseases and geriatric syndromes: The properly being and retirement look at. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.57(three):511–516.

Levett-Jones, T. (Ed.). (2013). Scientific reasoning: Learning to imagine like a nurse. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson.

Nationwide Eye Institute (2016). Info About Age-Related Macular Degeneration. being/maculardegen/armd_facts. Accessed: 03rd April, 2017.

Neri L, Basilisco G, Corazziari E.(2014) Constipation severity is said to productiveness losses and healthcare utilization in victims with continuous constipation. United European Gastroenterol J. 2:138–47.

Schuster, B. G., Kosar, L., & Kamrul, R. (2015). Constipation in older adults: Stepwise technique to keep up points shifting. Canadian Family Physician, 61(2), 152–158.

Watkins, S (2010). Administration of older of us with dry and moist age-related macular degeneration. DOI: 10.7748/nop2010.

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