Posted: July 28th, 2021

Young People and Sexual Agency in Rural Uganda Literature Review

Summary of paper

HIV and AIDS continues to be an ongoing concern in a number of nations globally and far more so for African nations. Evaluation revealed in 2012 by Stephen A. Bell, “Youthful people and sexual firm in rural Uganda” examines the selection making course of primary youthful Ugandans involvement in sexual relationships, the transactional negotiations and components which is able to have an effect on sexual properly being dedication making alternatives.1

Bells’ evaluation builds on present literature as a result of it examines how youthful people’s sexual firm has an impression on their sexual properly being alternatives and life; with the intention of providing properly being promotion practitioners a further good and wise place to start from which to design HIV and sexual properly being programmes. Bell contextualises his evaluation with a broader framework of “empowerment”. The evaluation seeks to make clear how youthful people (11 – 24 years outdated) make alternatives referring to their sexual behaviour unpacking the type of knowledge accessible to them, contraceptive knowledge and the stigma hooked as much as sexual train at an early age.1

Bell’s evaluation inquiry is educated by the theoretical framework of “specific individual firm, outlined by Petesch, Smulovitz and Walton as a result of the aptitude of individuals to make purposeful alternatives and rework these into desired actions and outcomes”.2 In doing so, Bell discusses the notion of “sexual firm” to hunt recommendation from a course of the place youthful people turn into sexually vigorous and the strategies, actions and negotiations involved in navigating broader social expectations.

The analysis design incorporates numerous qualitative methods. The evaluation is carried out in three rural areas in Uganda over 2 years. The methods utilized are focus groups and structured interviews. The principle focus groups sample is drawn from native faculties and non-school attendees. From the primary goal groups purposive sampling is used to then invite members to participate inside the structured interviews. A broad range of issues are talked about along with what they favored or disliked about their communities, their social and cultural expectations, residence circumstances, their social networks, monetary and social wellbeing, relationships and intercourse and their aspirations for the long run.

The three key findings reported had been:

  1. Parts influencing dedication making leading to involvement in sexual and intimate relationships;
  2. Actions and negotiations inside these relationships; and
  3. Outcomes arising from sexual firm. 1


The evaluation affords an in depth and rich notion to the selection making technique of youthful people referring to sexual properly being. In light of this, a further detailed examination that focuses on the generalizability of the findings to a particular and varied inhabitants is required.

Focus groups (between eight and 12 members) are social contexts characterised by the varieties of communicative interaction and which implies making current in frequently conversations. three The intention of the primary goal group is to draw upon the members’ attitudes, beliefs, feelings experiences and reactions in methodology not attainable using completely different methods. These attitudes, feelings and beliefs normally are typically revealed by the use of a social gathering and the interaction which being in a highlight group entails.4

Focus groups are versatile in nature, have extreme face validity and may generate loads of data nonetheless there are moreover limitations to this technique notably, in recording, transcribing and analysing this information which have to be taken into consideration. Inside the case of Bells evaluation the potential of introducing error or bias are considerably extreme if the dialogue must be translated from the native language to the language of the investigator and this a problem which is crucial in multilingual environments. Bells linguistic attributes inside the native language simply is not disclosed nor the language used inside the focus group session. Considering the age of among the many members and the potential cultural influences, free expression simply is not on a regular basis attainable in a gaggle setting and the group can the reality is inhibit dialogue. As an example, Vlassoff (1987) described a focus-group dialogue amongst adolescent women in India, all through which the women had been painfully shy, not wishing to debate their opinions in entrance of various people, no matter in depth efforts to create a relaxed setting conducive to dialogue.5

Totally different limitations of focus groups are their small samples measurement along with being purposively chosen. The outcomes from this sample may not allow generalization to larger populations the place the evaluation outcomes may be related. In addition to, as with completely different qualitative methods, the chances of introducing bias and subjectivity into the interpretation of the knowledge are extreme.6 Whereas the focus-group dialogue can current plausible insights and explanations, one mustn't extrapolate from focus group discussions to a broader and heterogeneous inhabitants. This tenet may not on a regular basis be adopted. Truly Merton, a key author of focus-group discussions, implies that “focus group evaluation is being mercilessly misused as quick-and-easy claims for the validity of the evaluation shouldn't subjected to further, quantitative check out”.7

Implications of Place

Because of abovementioned limitations the knowledge gathered may not current a conclusive info all through completely different youthful people populations in associated settings, i.e. Ugandan communities or completely different nations inside the space. This in flip makes it powerful for properly being promotions firms to develop and ship programmes consider “protected sexual properly being” practices concentrating on the youthful people aged between 11 and 24 years. The Ottawa Structure for Nicely being Promotion (WHO, 1986) emphases the need to create supportive environments and strengthen neighborhood actions.eight What is clear is the need to coach all the neighborhood to facilitate social change. There are a selection of theories underpinning neighborhood broad approaches to properly being promotion as an example, the three-stage Freirian Praxis Model of change suggests that people engaged in Freirian packages can evolve previous powerlessness to create a approach of empowerment—that they will make a distinction of their worlds.9

Bell critiques that youthful people do know what they're doing in relation to their sexual alternatives; they will articulate their needs and feelings after which act on these. The evaluation affords treasured notion and properly being promotion programme designers may must ponder how these may very well be tailored and built-in to an space context. Further evaluation is required to know the neighborhood at huge and the cultural influences which can be barrier to youthful people accessing properly timed, appropriate and relevant sexual properly being knowledge.


  1. Bell, S. A. (2012). Youthful people and sexual firm in rural Uganda.Custom, properly being & sexuality,14(three), 283-296.
  2. Petesch, P., Smulovitz, C., & Walton, M. (2005). Evaluating empowerment: A framework with circumstances from Latin America.Measuring empowerment: Cross-disciplinary views, 39-67
  3. Barbour, R., & Kitzinger, J. (Eds.). (1998).Creating focus group evaluation: politics, precept and apply. Sage.
  4. Division of Sociology, Faculty of Surrey, accessed on 25 August 2014,>
  5. Vlassoff, C. (1987). Contributions of the micro-approach to social sciences evaluation. Report prepared for IDRC.
  6. Khan, M. E., Anker, M., Patel, B. C., Barge, S., Sadhwani, H., & Kohle, R. (1991). The utilization of focus groups in social and behavioural evaluation: some methodological factors.World Nicely being Stat Q,44(three), 145-149
  7. Merton, R. Okay. (1987). The focussed interview and focus groups: Continuities and discontinuities.Public Opinion Quarterly, 550-566.
  8. WHO, (1986), The Ottawa structure for properly being promotion, accessed on 25 August 2014,>
  9. Wallerstein, N., & Sanchez-Merki, V. (1994). Freirian praxis in properly being coaching: evaluation outcomes from an adolescent prevention program.Nicely being Coaching Evaluation,9(1), 105-118.


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